quinta-feira, 26 de abril de 2007

Sistema Nervoso Autônomo

Chama-se sistema nervoso autônomo a parte do sistema nervoso relacionada com o controle da musculatura lisa, com o rítmo cardíaco e com a secreção de algumas glândulas. Sua função é ajustar certas atividades do organismo, a fim de manter a constância do meio interno (homeostase).

O conceito de sistema nervoso autônomo é principalmente funcional. Anatomicamente, ele é formado por aglomerados de células nervosas localizadas no sistema nervoso central, por fibras que saem do sistema nervoso central através de nervos cranianos e espinhais, e pelos gânglios nervosos situados no curso dessas fibras. O primeiro neurônio de cadeia autônoma está localizado no sistema nervoso central. Seu axônio entra em conexão sináptica com o segundo neurônio da cadeia, localizado num gânglio do sistema autônomo ou no interior de um órgão. As fibras nervosas que ligam o primeiro axônio ao segundo são chamadasde pré-ganglionares e as que partem do segundo neurônio para os efetores são as pós-ganglionares.

O sistema nervoso autônomo é formado por duas partes, distintas por sua anatomia e por suas funções: o sistema simpático e o sistema parassimpático.

Sistema nervoso autônomo simpático

É um sistema adrenérgico, sendo seu principal neurotransmissor a noradrenalina. Seu principal nervo é o tronco simpático. Está presente nos vasos sanguíneos, glândulas sudoríparas, músculo liso, vísceras torácicas e abdominais. Este sistema é ativado em momento de estresse.
Nas fibras pré-ganglionares é a acetilcolina e nas pós ganglionares é a noradrenalina que atua.

Sistema nervoso autônomo parassimpático

É responsável pelo funcionamento normal do animal. Seu principal nervo é o vago, e é um sistema colinérgico tendo como principal neurotransmissor a acetilcolina. Tanto as fibras pré quanto as fibras pós ganglionares é a acetilcolina que atua.

A maioria dos órgãos inervados pelo sistema nervoso autônomo recebe fibras do simpático e do parassimpático. Em geral, nos órgãos em que o simpático é estimulador, o parassimpático tem ação inibidora, e vice-versa. Por exemplo, a estimulação do simpático acelera o ritmo cardíaco, ao passo que a estimulação das fibras parassimpáticas diminui este ritmo. Há alguns casos em que a atividade dos dois é complementar e não antagônica, como ocorre em algumas glândulas salivares, cuja secreção é maior quando estimulada pelo simpático e pelo parassimpático do que por qualquer um deles isoladamente.
Fonte: Conteúdo ministrado em aula; Livro de Histologia básica, autores : Junqueira e Carneiro

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